There is another way: see the economics section.
They insisted that unless they resorted 'to the overseer, whip , and hounds' their estates would deteriorate and never recover. ... "Planters resented that emancipation not only challenged their sense of racial supremacy but also eroded their authority as employers of labor." p. 13The fate that awaited African Americans was one with which many workers of all background can relate today:
"Because black material success often rested on white goodwill, blacks took great care not to appear too successful or to transgress racial boundaries"Reich goes on to tell of a black teacher who felt compelled to live in an unpainted house. p. 39
Reich spells out the details of the political reasoning at the time.
"The political activism of black workers in the low country caused Republicans to fear the African Americans would corrupt the political system by seizing the reins of government in order to confiscate property, redistribute wealth, and erode the promise of social mobility through hard work. Faced with growing whit working-class unrest in the North and politically mobilized former slaves in the South, Northern Republicans abandoned their working-class allies, fearful that they would sow the seeds of political and economic disorder by strengthening the rights of labor at the expense of the rights of property." p. 30
"Many Republicans, who valued property rights over labor rights, grew fearful of encouraging a class politics from below. More and more, they became convinced that it was safer and wiser to come to terms with former Confederates than to promote and protect the interests of their black working-class constituents. In so doing, they enabled the whit propertied elites of the South to survive the trials of Reconstruction." p. 31Quotes from A Working People: A history of African American workers since Emancipation, Rowman and Littlefield, 2013, New York.